Flower World - Mundo Florido, vol. 4

Music Archaeology of the Americas - Arqueomusicología de las Américas

Post-Contact Trade Bells Among the Indians of the Southeastern United States

John M. Connaway

When European explorers, colonists, traders, and missionaries first entered the southeastern United States in the sixteenth century, they brought items with them for trade and gifting to the indigenous Americans. Among such items were two kinds of bells, globular-shaped “hawk” bells, and open-mouth hand bells. My research has focused on the former, with emphasis on typology, distribution, and chronology of these bells, from Spanish, English, and French sources, with the intent of eventually publishing a reference book or books on the subject. This article presents an overview of data collected thus far, and suggests the importance of bells as items of value and status to the Indians. Bell types from the countries involved and their chronological positions will be described, along with details of their manufacture, their uses and general distribution over the Southeast.

A su llegada al sureste de los Estados Unidos en el siglo XVI, los primeros exploradores, colonos, comerciantes y misioneros traían consigo varios artículos para regalarlos a o intercambiarlos con los indígenas. Entre ellos se hallaban dos tipos de campanas: campanas globulares “de halcón” y campanas abiertas de mano. Enfocando el primer tipo puse énfasis en la tipología, distribución y cronología de estas campanas provenientes de fuentes españolas, inglesas y francesas. Pretendo publicar en un futuro un libro o varios libros de referencia sobre el tema. Para mientras, estoy resumiendo aquí los datos que hasta la fecha han sido recopilados, resaltando la importancia de las campanas como objetos de valor y estatus para los indígenas. El artículo describe los distintos tipos de campanas, identifica los países de proveniencia, reconstruye su cronología y proporciona detalles sobre su manufactura, sus usos y su distribución general en el sureste de los Estados Unidos.

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