Flower World - Mundo Florido, vol. 4

Music Archaeology of the Americas - Arqueomusicología de las Américas

Tara: La estética del sonido pulsante – Una síntesis

Arnaud Gérard A.

Una cantidad considerable de instrumentos musicales precolombinos desde los Andes septentrionales hasta los meridionales fueron construidos para emitir inexorablemente sonidos multifónicos y pulsantes. Entre ellos se hallan flautas de Pan y pifilcas líticas y de cerámica con tubos complejos, silbatos dobles, ocarinas dobles, botellas silbadoras dobles e incluso flautas traversas dobles. Durante su estadía en la comunidad rural de Kalankira (Norte de Potosí, Bolivia) el etnomusicólogo Henry Stobart resaltó dos categorías de sonidos que corresponden a dos estéticas acústicas opuestas: tara y q’iwa, ambos emitidos por pinkillus de carnaval ejecutados en comunidades de toda la región. Los análisis acústicos de las flautas arqueológicas que estudiamos en este artículo muestran dos tipos de fenómenos diferentes: multifonías con redoble y batimientos. Resulta que la categoría semántica tara encierra significados que son perfectamente aplicables a estas flautas, no solamente a la estética sonora, sino también a la técnica de construcción.

A considerable number of pre-Columbian musical instruments from the northern to the southern Andes were built to inevitably produce multiphonic and pulsating sounds. Among them are panpipes, lithic and ceramic pifilcas (a flute type with complex tubes), double whistles, double ocarinas, double whistling bottles, and even double transverse flutes. During his stay in the rural community of Kalankira (northern Potosí, Bolivia), the ethnomusicologist Henry Stobart reported on two sound categories which correspond to two opposite aesthetic categories: tara and q’iwa, both produced by pinkillus (duct flutes) played in communities throughout the region for carnival celebrations. The acoustic analysis of the archaeological flutes that we study in this article shows two different kinds of phenomenon: multiphonics with roll effect and beats. It appears that the semantic category of tara can be assigned to these flutes, not only in their sonic aesthetics, but also in the techniques used in their construction.

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